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Opening Science - The Evolving Guide on How the Web is Changing Research, Collaboration and Scholarly Publishing is a book published by Springer in January 2014 with Sönke Bartling and Sascha Friesike as editors. The content is Open Access with a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercical (CC BY-NC) license.

The content for Opening Science will change over time, and this website is used to collect comments and provide revisions of the book chapters as the text evolves. The text is formatted in Markdown, and is converted into HTML by the Pandoc document converter and the Jekyll static site generator. All files are stored in git version control and hosted on Github. Technical implementation of this website coordinated by Martin Fenner.

About the Authors

Sönke Bartling

PD Dr. med. Sönke Bartling is a researcher in medical imaging sciences (CT/X-ray) at the German Cancer Research Center in Heidelberg and a board certified radiologist at the University Medical Center in Mannheim, both in Germany. His interest in Open Science grew over the last few years, when he realized that several things aren’t the way they could be. The transition towards More Open Science is an opportunity for profound changes within the world of research, if driven by knowledgeable and opinionated researchers.

Roland Bertelmann

is head of the Library “Wissenschaftspark Albert Einstein”, Potsdam, a joint library of several research institutions (GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, PIK Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Potsdam branch of Alfred Wegener Institute and IASS Institute for Advanced Sustainability Studies). He is responsible for Helmholtz Association’s Open Access Coordination Office and is a member of the working group ‘Open Access’ in the Priority Initiative “Digital Information” of the German Alliance of Science Organisations.

Peter Binfield

is Co-Founder and Publisher of PeerJ, a recently launched open access publisher of PeerJ (a peer-reviewed journal for the biological and medical sciences) and PeerJ PrePrints (a preprint server). PeerJ aims to make high quality publication open and affordable to all, and it incorporates several innovations in regard to open peer review, cutting edge functionality, and new business models. Prior to founding PeerJ, Pete ran PLOS ONE for 4 years and before that worked at IoPP, Kluwer Academic, Springer, and SAGE. Pete has a PhD in underwater holography, which sounds much more interesting than it actually is.

Mathias Binswanger

Mathias Binswanger is professor for economics at the University of Applied Sciences Nordwestschweiz in Olten and lecturer at the University of St.Gallen, Switzerland. He was also visiting professor at the Technical University Freiberg in Germany, at the Qingdao Technological University in China, and the Banking University in Saigon (Vietnam). Mathias Binswanger is author of numerous books and articles in professional journals as well as in the press. His research foci are in the areas of macroeconomics, financial market theories, environmental economics, and also in exploring the relation between happiness and income. Mathias Binswanger is also the author of the book “Die Tretmühlen des Glücks” (Treadmills of Luck), published in 2006, which became a bestseller in Switzerland. In 2010, his most recent book “Sinnlose Wettbewerbe - Warum wir immer mehr Unsinn produzieren” (Pointless Competitions – Why we keep on producing more and more Nonsense) was published.

Jan Brase

Jan has a degree in Mathematics and a PhD in Computer science. His research background is in metadata, ontologies, and digital libraries. From 2005 to 2012 he was head of the DOI-registration agency for research data at the German National Library of Science and Technology (TIB). Since 2009 he has furthermore been Managing Agent of DataCite, an international consortium with 17 members from 12 countries. DataCite was founded in December 2009 and has set itself the goal of making the online access to research data for scientists easier by promoting the acceptance of research data as individual, citable scientific objects. Jan is Chair of the International DOI foundation (IDF), Vice-President of the International Council for Scientific and Technical Information (ICSTI), and Co-Chair of the recently established CODATA Data Citation task group. He is the author of several articles and conference papers on the citation of data sets and the new challenges for libraries in dealing with such non-textual information objects.

Sünje Dallmeier-Tiessen

Sünje is currently working as a postdoctoral fellow in the Scientific Information Service at CERN ( She came to CERN the end of 2009. Her research focuses on innovations in digital scholarly communication, i.e. the integration of research data. She is also particularly interested in the engagement of research communities in Open Science and possible support solutions. Beforehand, she worked for the Helmholtz Association’s Open Access Coordination Office. email:

Jörg Eisfeld-Reschke

Jörg Eisfeld-Reschke is a founder of ikosom - “Institut für Kommunikation in sozialen Medien”. ikosom has been researching trends like Crowdfunding, Crowdinvesting, and Crowdsourcing through several publications and studies. The first Crowdsourcing Report for Germany and several studies on Crowdfunding in the creative industries has been published by ikosom. Jörg Eisfeld-Reschke is head of the working group “Digital Fundraising” of the German Fundraising Association and an alumnus of the Humboldt-Viadrina School of Governance.

Benedikt Fecher

Benedikt Fecher is a doctoral researcher at the Humboldt Institute for Internet and Society in Berlin, Germany. The focus of his dissertation is on commons-based peer production in science and motivational aspects of participation in Open Science.

Martin Fenner

Martin Fenner is a software developer for the publisher Public Library of Science (PLOS). Before joining PLOS in 2012, he worked as medical doctor and clinical cancer researcher at Hannover Medical School. He regularly writes about Science 2.0 in his blog Gobbledygook.

Ralf Floca

Dr. Ralf Floca is a researcher in the fields of medical informatics and image processing, as well as group leader at the German Cancer Research Center in Heidelberg, Germany. His group, “Software Development for integrated Diagnostic and Therapy”, facilitates translation within the research program “Imaging and Radiooncology” of the German Cancer Research Center. Ultimately the goal is to build bridges in order to overcome the gaps between state-of-the-art research and clinical application, therefore supporting a more personalized, more effective treatment of cancer. One important step towards this goal is the correlation and analysis of different data sources in terms of data intensive science. This is one of many connection points with topics within Open Science that motivated his contribution to this book.

Tobias Fries

While studying business and economics and writing his doctoral dissertation at Witten/Herdecke University in Germany, Tobias Fries was already building up various different internet companies. Living many years abroad in places like Buenos Aires and Geneva and working in the internet industry, he became interested in the field of scale free networks. His current startup companies all include some elements of scale free network thinking, from whence this contribution is also derived.

Sascha Friesike

Dr. Sascha Friesike works as a postdoctoral researcher at the Alexander von Humboldt Institute for Internet and Society in Berlin, Germany. There he is in charge of the research group “Open Science”. He holds an engineering degree from the Technical University in Berlin and a Ph.D. from the University of St.Gallen. Prior to his engagement in Berlin, he worked as a researcher at the Center for Design Research at Stanford University.

Alexander Gerber

Managing Director of the German Research Center for Science and Innovation Communication, Alexander Gerber teaches science marketing (Technical University Berlin), science communication (Rhine-Waal University), and science policy (Rhine Sieg University). He is an elected member of the Governing Board of Euroscience, and the ESOF Supervisory Board. He chairs the Editorial Board of Euroscientist and the Stakeholders Assembly of the EU science communication network PLACES (FP7). Mr. Gerber is also Secretary General of the German Society for Science & Technical Publishing (TELI). As an information scientist, he primarily focuses his research and consulting on interactive media, citizen involvement, communication impact measurements, and market insight in science and innovation. Before that, he was head of Marketing & Communications at Fraunhofer ICT Group for 7 years, and editor of InnoVisions Magazine for 5 years.

Laure Haak

Laurel L. Haak is the Executive Director of ORCID. She has experience in research evaluation, science policy, editing, and IT systems development, with positions at Science Magazine, The US National Academies, Discovery Logic, and Thomson Reuters. Dr. Haak was awarded a PhD in Neuroscience by Stanford University Medical School, and performed postdoctoral work at the US National Institutes of Health.

Lambert Heller

Lambert Heller is a librarian (LIS master degree from Humboldt University Berlin) and social scientist. He heads the “Open Science Lab” team at TIB Hannover, the German National Library of Science and Technology. Before that he worked for DFG funded projects on information management and libraries. He then worked as a subject librarian in Hannover, introducing reference management, publishing, and social media related services at the TIB. He publishes and teaches about open knowledge production, (scholarly) communication on the Internet, and library 2.0.

Ulrich Herb

Ulrich Herb holds a diploma in Sociology and is a PhD candidate in Information Science at Saarland University. He is the Open Access expert at Saarland University and the project manager at Saarland University and State Library for projects in the realm of Electronic Publishing and Open Access. He also acts as a freelance science consultant and science journalist. In 2012 he edited the anthology “Open Initiatives: Offenheit in der digitalen Welt und Wissenschaft” which describes and analyzes claims and initiatives for Openness in scientific and non-scientific contexts as in, e.g. Open Access, Open Metrics, Open Data or Open Research Data.

Michael Nentwich

The lawyer and science and technology scholar Michael Nentwich has worked and studied in Vienna, Bruges, Cologne, Warwick, and Colchester. Since 2006 he has been the director of the Institute of Technology Assessment (ITA) of the Austrian Academy of Sciences. In 2003, he published the volume “Cyberscience. Research in the Age of the Internet“, and, in 2012, together with René König, “Cyberscience 2.0. Research in the Age of Digital Social Networks”.

René König

René König has studied sociology in Bielefeld (Germany) and Linköping (Sweden). He is currently working on his PhD thesis at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology´s Institute for Technology Assessment and Systems Analysis (ITAS), focusing on online search behavior in the context of scientific controversies. Before this, he was a researcher at the Austrian Academy of Sciences in Vienna and published the book “Cyberscience 2.0: Research in the Age of Digital Social Networks” (2012) together with Michael Nentwich.

James MacGregor

Formerly of the Electronic Text Centre at the University of New Brunswick, James has been a PKP system developer and community coordinator since 2007. He is involved in various components of the Project, including translation, testing, documentation, teaching, research, and even some code development occasionally. Ongoing areas of interest include alternative research metrics, community outreach and organization, and the ongoing and worldwide push for open access to scholarly research.

Luka Oreskovic

Luka is a historian, publicist, and political analyst. At Harvard, he studies modern European political and economic history and is currently working on research of diplomatic and political history between the US and Yugoslavia for a biography of Henry Kissinger. He is a columnist for The Moscow Times and his writing has appeared in the Financial Times, LSE’s EUROPP, UN Chronicle, Acque&Terre, and others. He advises leading geopolitical risk research and consulting companies on economic reform and policy.

Heinz Pampel

Heinz Pampel studied library and information management at Stuttgart Media University (HdM). Since 2007 he has worked for the Helmholtz Association’s Open Access Coordination Office at GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, and the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research (AWI). He is a member of several work groups on the permanent access to scientific information. He is currently working on a doctoral dissertation at the Berlin School of Library and Information Science at Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin.

Cornelius Puschmann

Dr. Cornelius Puschmann is a postdoctoral researcher at Humboldt University Berlin’s School of Library and Information Science, a research associate at the Alexander von Humboldt Institute for Internet and Society, and a visiting fellow at the Oxford Internet Institute. Cornelius studies computer-mediated communication and the Internet’s impact upon society, especially upon science and scholarship. He is also interested in the role of digital data for various different stakeholders (platform providers, data scientists, end users).

Kaja Scheliga

Kaja Scheliga studied English and Drama (BA) at Royal Holloway, University of London, and Computer Science (MSc) at University College London. At the Humboldt Institute for Internet and Society, she is currently a doctoral researcher in the field of Open Science.

Thomas Schildhauer

Since April 1999, Prof. Schildhauer has been the founder and director of the Institute of Electronic Business – the first affiliated institute of the University of Arts Berlin. In May 2007, he was appointed executive director of the Berlin Career College at the University of Arts, Berlin. Since 2012 Prof. Schildhauer has been one of the executive directors of the Alexander von Humboldt Institute for Internet and Society gGmbH, where he is responsible for the research topic “Internet based innovation”. Since October 2012, he has served as the scientific director of the digital consultancy iDeers Consulting GmbH, founded by IEB and Hirschen Group GmbH.

Michelle Sidler

Michelle Sidler is an Associate Professor of writing studies at Auburn University, Alabama, USA where she teaches classes in the rhetoric of science and technology, professional and technical communication, and English composition. Her research interests include writing, technology, science, and medicine. She has published multiple journal articles and chapters in edited collections, and her co-edited anthology, Computers in the Composition Classroom, won the 2008 Distinguished Book Award from the Computers and Composition community.

Dagmar Sitek

Dagmar is head of the library at the German Cancer Research Center in Heidelberg, Germany. She is a member of the working group “Research Data” in the Priority Initiative “Digital Information” from the Alliance of German Science Organisations.

Victoria Stodden

Victoria is an assistant professor of Statistics at Columbia University, and affiliated with the Columbia University Institute for Data Sciences and Engineering. She completed both her PhD in statistics and her law degree at Stanford University. Her research centers on the multifaceted problem of enabling reproducibility in computational science. This includes studying adequacy and robustness in replicated results, designing and implementing validation systems, developing standards of openness for data and code sharing, and resolving legal and policy barriers in disseminating reproducible research. She is the developer of the award winning “Reproducible Research Standard”, a suite of open licensing recommendations for the dissemination of computational results. She is a co-founder of, an open platform for disseminating the code and data associated with published results, and enabling independent and public cloud-based verification of methods and findings. She is the creator and curator of SparseLab, a collaborative platform for reproducible computational research in underdetermined systems.

She was awarded the NSF EAGER grant “Policy Design for Reproducibility and Data Sharing in Computational Science.” She serves as a member of the National Science Foundation’s Advisory Committee on Cyberinfrastructure (ACCI), the Mathematics and Physical Sciences Directorate Subcommittee on “Support for the Statistical Sciences at NSF”,and the National Academies of Science Committee on “Responsible Science: Ensuring the Integrity of the Research Process.” She is also on several committees in the American Statistical Association: The Committee on Privacy and Confidentiality, the Committee on Data Sharing and Reproducibility, and the Presidential Strategic Initiative “Developing a Prototype Statistics Portal”. She also serves on the Columbia University’s Senate Information Technologies Committee.

Kevin Stranack

Kevin is a Learning & Development Consultant with the Public Knowledge Project at the Simon Fraser University Library. Kevin received his Master of Library and Information Studies from the University of British Columbia in 2002, and his Master of Adult Education from the University of Regina in 2013.

Vladimir Teif

Dr. Vladimir B. Teif works at the German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ). His current professional interests include quantitative modeling of gene regulation processes in chromatin. His research in this field was reported in “classical-style” peer-reviewed publications and highlighted by prestigious young scientist awards and fellowships. As a hobby, he is also an administrator or moderator for several scientific internet projects. In his manuscript, “Science 3.0: The future of science in the Internet”, he has critically evaluated current business models behind Science 2.0 and proposed alternatives that aim to make what he calls “Science 3.0” a more democratic and more effective solution, both for individual scientists and society.

Ronald The

Ronald The is a designer, information architect, and concept developer. He holds a Graphic Design Diploma from the Karlsruhe University of Arts and Design and a Master of Arts in Communication, Planning, and Design from the University of Design, Schwäbisch Gmünd. Ronald founded the user experience consultancy company infotectures, based in Heidelberg, Germany. He specializes in user interface design, web-design/mobile design, and presentations. His involvement in research and Open Science was stimulated by his position as a guest lecturer at the Popakademie Mannheim and the University of Design Schwäbisch Gmünd.

Hilger Voss

Consultant at iDeers Consulting, a joint venture between the Hirschen Group and the Institute of Electronic Business (affiliated institute of the University of Arts Berlin), where he used to be a member of the research staff. He studied Media Consulting at TU Berlin.

Karsten Wenzlaff

Karsten Wenzlaff is the CEO and a founder of ikosom - “Institut für Kommunikation in sozialen Medien”. ikosom has been researching trends like Crowdfunding, Crowdinvesting, and Crowdsourcing through several publications and studies. The first Crowdsourcing Report for Germany and several studies on Crowdfunding in the creative industries has been published by ikosom. Karsten Wenzlaff is an alumnus of the University of Cambridge and the University of Bayreuth.

John Willinsky

John Willinsky is the Khosla Family Professor of Education at Stanford University and Professor (Limited Term) of Publishing Studies at Simon Fraser University, where he directs the Public Knowledge Project, which conducts research and develops scholarly publishing software intended to extend the reach and effectiveness of scholarly communication. His books include the “Empire of Words: The Reign of the OED” (Princeton, 1994); “Learning to Divide the World: Education at Empire’s End” (Minnesota, 1998); “Technologies of Knowing” (Beacon 2000); and “The Access Principle: The Case for Open Access to Research and Scholarship” (MIT Press, 2006).